Information about pollutants - profile, page 1

Historical review of air pollutants in the 1800 - 2000

About the inconvenience and damage caused by foul-smelling, irritating and toxic components of indoor air is unwieldy literature. This is the one part with the multitude of pollutants, on the other hand, the 200-year history of studies on indoor air quality and housing reasons of hygiene.

Century 18
in the 18th century was mostly private houses, where doctors were interested in the topic healthy housing
Century 19
In the 19th century, with industrialization arrive new questions.
Related to the massive industrialization of urban housing those are required for workers often do not correspond with the minimum standards of hygiene.
In the mid-20th century
early work on housing and domestic hygiene dealt mainly the deterioration of air quality by the "evaporation" of the people. The bad smell in the rooms crowded (very early in the hospital studied), the importance of human breath which recorded carbon dioxide (CO2) were initially the focus. In addition, the first damage and the dangers of fires, fireplaces, and simple lack of light sources (such as kerosene lamps), are investigated. In addition, the humidity and the spread of household sponge and other germs and fungi, and other structural defects with consequences for the internal hygiene play an important role. This range of topics was the focus of research, questions relating to these professionals in the middle of the 20th Century. Only in the area and around the health and safety issues in the institutions involved in investigations and reviews of performance and activity related to the emission of pollutants in workplaces covered.
50 to 70 years
In the 50s of the 20th Century had a temporary change to new issues of air quality outside the industrial-commercial area. This coincided with the introduction of new techniques and materials in the construction industry, whose importance and influence is often recognized only gradually.
The candidate for the chemical industry has been gradually market the construction industry through the introduction of new products developed: sealants, wall paints, floor adhesives, wood, insulation and insulation materials, dyes and many other products, mainly based on petrochemicals, have been repressed and traditional techniques and materials of metal and mineral products, wood and synthetic materials (flax, hemp, cotton, etc.). In their place came the synthetic plastics. A variety of chemical contaminants have been used for the first time in the construction of buildings. These include asbestos, formaldehyde, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), PCP (pentachlorophenol), lindane, etc…
Today, buildings that were built 1950 to 1985 are those with the highest potential in pollution loads in the interior. Since 1985, the voltage range is smaller, as some of the major pollutants such as asbestos, PCP, PCBs (in Austria, mostly in the EU, but not everyone) have been banned. For others, there are restrictions. However, even today, some organic solvent-containing products in construction. Still in the cleaning and hygiene items, office supplies and DIY equipment, etc..,
70 years
especially in the 70s of the 20th Century, the different stages of
"energy crisis" accumulated complaints about poor air quality in
the interior spaces. Improvements and better insulation against uncontrolled air exchange significantly increased the concentrations of pollutants in the interior. These came from building materials and equipment and products used in these buildings.
Description of air pollutants indoors today
the types of pollutants, pollutant sources and routes of exposure and concentrations of pollutants have evolved over the decades. For example, users or employees of the residential conversion of the pollutants those make it into the new building no longer exist. These include sites contaminated by asbestos, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), or in wood used pentachlorophenol (PCP).

The following table provides an overview of common indoor pollutants and their sources and effects.
Chart: indoor pollutants




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